Fig. 1. The complex linkage of water-energy-food Nexus and sustainable development goals.
Water, energy, and food are indispensable resources for regional social and economic development. The cross-regional resource transfer can increase the complexity in the coordinated management of water, energy, and food in Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao regions. This study proposed a footprint accounting framework for cross-regional water, energy, and food Nexus, which incorporates direct flows within territory and Nexus flows embodied in final consumption. An environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model was established to quantify water, energy, food, water-related energy, food-related energy, energy-related water, and food-related water footprints in Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao regions. The results indicated that direct energy footprint was 5.3 times of food-related and water-related energy footprints, and energy-related and food-related water footprints were 3.8 times of direct water footprint. Inter-regional trade plays an important role in the management of the water, energy, and food Nexus in three regions. Hong Kong and Macao outsource huge water, energy, and food Nexus footprints by importing freshwater, electricity, and food from Guangdong to satisfy local demand. The proposed footprint framework could serve as indicators or tools for measuring sustainable development goals, and the results could provide the basis for the coordinated resources management of Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao regions.
Zhang, P., Cai, Y., Zhou, Y., Tan, Q., Li, B., Li, B., Jia, Q., & Yang, Z. (2022). Quantifying the water-energy-food Nexus in Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao regions. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 29, 188-200.
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