Country Profiles

Nexus Country Profile // Sudan

Sudan is located from 9°N to 22°N in north-eastern Africa; it shares borders with Egypt, Libya, Chad, Central African Republic, South Sudan, Ethiopia and Eritrea as well as the Red Sea. Although located in the tropics, the climate extends from a desert climate in the northern regions to a summer-rain climate in the southern regions. Approximately half of the country (mainly in the northern states) is covered by bare rocks and soil. In the southern regions, agricultural areas, trees, shrubs and herbaceous land cover is dominant. The second Sudanese civil war lasted from 1983 to 2005, when a peace deal was made. The Darfur crisis started in 2003, and a peace accord with the government was signed in 2010. In 2011, following a unanimous referendum vote, South Sudan gained independence from the rest of Sudan. Abyei is a disputed area with South Sudan and Bir Tawil and the Hala’ib Triangle are disputed areas with Egypt.

Highlighted Nexus-related challenges faced by Sudan:

  • Regional conflict and instability have forced millions of people to migrate within the country, forcing more people to face extreme poverty with low water, energy and food securities. Furthermore, civil war and famine in South Sudan has seen vast numbers of people seek safety in Sudan, and cross-border oil flows have been drastically reduced.
  • The water dependency on water originating outside the country is high, and suitable management of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) will be vital for ensuring that Sudan’s water demands are met.
  • Approximately 5.5 million people in Sudan face food insecurity and 15.9 million people don’t use at least basic drinking water services.
  • Poor water management contributes to high levels of wastage in the irrigation schemes.
  • Power shortages are common, hence there is an urgency from the government to increase the country’s energy supply through greater generation from hydropower or imports from Ethiopia.



December 2018


About the Nexus Country Profiles

The Nexus Country Profiles give an overview of the Nexus-related challenges faced by a country, show the specifics of the water, energy and food/agricultural sectors and summarise the water-energy, water-food and energy-food interrelations. Nexus-relevant aspects of the country’s governance are highlighted and allow for a better understanding of possible entry points for integrated management and policy planning. The profiles culminate in a tri-sectoral Nexus evaluation and food-energy-water security index.

The country profiles are developed in the frame of the  Nexus Dialogue Programme, jointly funded by the European Union and the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), Germany, and implemented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) in cooperation with regional partners. Research for and elaboration of the country profiles is supported by the Institute for Technology and Resource Management in the Tropics and Subtropics (ITT) at the TH Köln – University of Applied Sciences, Germany.

Further information

Further reading

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Research Papers, Publications and Books

Floating Solar // Where Sun Meets Water – Floating Solar Market Report Executive Summary

By World Bank Group, Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) and Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS). Floating solar photovoltaic installations open new opportunities for scaling up solar generating capacity, especially in countries with high population density and competing uses for available land. Floating Solar Market Report - Executive Summary presents an overview of floating solar technologies, current deployment market and future opportunities, challenges...

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Modelling and Assessment

Nexus Modelling // Involving the Water–Energy–Food Nexus in Integrating Low-Income and Isolated Communities

By Brenda Cansino-Loeza and José María Ponce-Ortega. This work presents a general mathematical programming model for satisfying water, energy, and food needs in isolated and low-income communities involving different process integration approaches. As a case study, the community with the lowest index of poverty and marginalization from the State of Guerrero in Mexico is presented. The problem consists in determining the optimal and sustainable configuration to satisfy the energy, water, and...

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Climate Change

Video // Green Pumps for Jordan’s Water to combat Climate Change

This video explains how highly energy efficient water pumps can contribute to improve water, energy, and food security in the water scarce country Jordan. At the same time, CO2-emmissions are lowered, which marks a significant contribution in meeting Jordan´s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to the Paris Agreement.

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