(C) Werner Du-Plessis, Unsplash
Research

Southern Africa // Prospects for Improving Irrigated Agriculture in Southern Africa: Linking Water, Energy and Food

By Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi, Sylvester Mpandeli, Luxon Nhamo, Vimbayi G. P. Chimonyo, Charles Nhemachena, Aidan Senzanje, Dhesigen Naidoo and Albert T Modi. Increasing agricultural productivity has always been a prominent feature on the regional agenda due to a high incidence of food and nutrition insecurity. This review assessed the current status of irrigated agriculture in southern Africa from a water–energy–food (WEF) nexus perspective.

Gaps and opportunities for improving irrigated agriculture within the context of the WEF nexus were also assessed in terms of the feasible limits to which they can be exploited. Southern Africa faces water scarcity, and climate projections show that member states will face increased physical and/or economic water scarcity by as early as 2025, which will have negative impacts on water, energy and food production. Recurrent droughts experienced across the region reaffirm the sensitive issues of food and energy insecurity as well as water scarcity. Projections of an increasing population within the region indicate increased water, energy and food demand. With agriculture already accounting for about 70% of water withdrawals, increasing the area under irrigation will place additional demand on already strained energy grids and scarce water resources.

This poses the question—is increasing irrigated agriculture a solution to improving water access, food security and energy supply?

While there are prospects for increasing the area under irrigation and subsequent improvement in agricultural productivity, adopting a WEF nexus approach in doing so would mitigate trade-offs and unintended consequences. Consideration of the WEF nexus in integrated resources planning and management eliminates the possibilities of transferring problems from one sector to other, as it manages synergies and trade-offs. While it is acknowledged that improving water productivity in irrigated agriculture could reduce water and energy use while increasing yield output, there is a need to decide how such savings would then be reallocated.

Any intervention to increase the irrigated area should be done in the context of a WEF nexus analytical framework to guide policy and decision-making. Technical planning should evolve around the WEF nexus approach in setting targets, as WEF nexus indicators would reveal the performance and impact of proposed interventions on any of the three WEF nexus components.

Download

Water Volume 10, Issue 12 (open access)

Published

December 2018

In

Water 2018, 10(12), 1881

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Governance

WEF Nexus Research // Solar Energy Farming as a Development Innovation for Vulnerable Water Basins

By Mohammad Al-Saidi and Nisreen Lahham. This article evaluates a project from the Azraq Basin in Jordan, and presents similar international experiences, particularly from India. It assesses solar energy farming as an innovation from a water-energy-food nexus perspective.

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Capacity Building

Nexus Game // Nexus Simulation at GEF meeting in Gaborone, Botswana

A session of the Nexus Game was held during the 5th Targeted Regional Workshop for Global Environment Facility (GEF) International Waters (IW) Projects in Africa in Gaborone, Botswana. The Nexus Game is a social simulation that exposes players to nexus challenges connected to transboundary water management. This article describes the main findings and take-aways of the Nexus Game participants and how the game raises awareness and understanding for different needs and perspectives.

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Desalination

Nexus Blog // Desalination Outlook for MENA

By Salman Zafar. This article discusses how renewable energy-powered desalination could be a sustainable opportunity to increase supply of potable water in MENA countries.

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