(C) Werner Du-Plessis, Unsplash
Research

Southern Africa // Prospects for Improving Irrigated Agriculture in Southern Africa: Linking Water, Energy and Food

By Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi, Sylvester Mpandeli, Luxon Nhamo, Vimbayi G. P. Chimonyo, Charles Nhemachena, Aidan Senzanje, Dhesigen Naidoo and Albert T Modi. Increasing agricultural productivity has always been a prominent feature on the regional agenda due to a high incidence of food and nutrition insecurity. This review assessed the current status of irrigated agriculture in southern Africa from a water–energy–food (WEF) nexus perspective.

Gaps and opportunities for improving irrigated agriculture within the context of the WEF nexus were also assessed in terms of the feasible limits to which they can be exploited. Southern Africa faces water scarcity, and climate projections show that member states will face increased physical and/or economic water scarcity by as early as 2025, which will have negative impacts on water, energy and food production. Recurrent droughts experienced across the region reaffirm the sensitive issues of food and energy insecurity as well as water scarcity. Projections of an increasing population within the region indicate increased water, energy and food demand. With agriculture already accounting for about 70% of water withdrawals, increasing the area under irrigation will place additional demand on already strained energy grids and scarce water resources.

This poses the question—is increasing irrigated agriculture a solution to improving water access, food security and energy supply?

While there are prospects for increasing the area under irrigation and subsequent improvement in agricultural productivity, adopting a WEF nexus approach in doing so would mitigate trade-offs and unintended consequences. Consideration of the WEF nexus in integrated resources planning and management eliminates the possibilities of transferring problems from one sector to other, as it manages synergies and trade-offs. While it is acknowledged that improving water productivity in irrigated agriculture could reduce water and energy use while increasing yield output, there is a need to decide how such savings would then be reallocated.

Any intervention to increase the irrigated area should be done in the context of a WEF nexus analytical framework to guide policy and decision-making. Technical planning should evolve around the WEF nexus approach in setting targets, as WEF nexus indicators would reveal the performance and impact of proposed interventions on any of the three WEF nexus components.

Download

Water Volume 10, Issue 12 (open access)

Published

December 2018

In

Water 2018, 10(12), 1881

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Jobs

Vacany // Internship Opportunity at Water and Wastewater Companies for Climate Mitigation (WaCCliM)

The GIZ programme “WaCCliM” is looking for an intern with a background in water and/or environmental sciences, development studies, information and communication sciences, or a related discipline. The candidate must be currently enrolled as a student or graduated not longer than six months ago and should be fluent both in English and German.

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Nexus Blog

Nexus Blog // Rediscovering the Water-Food-Energy Nexus

By Jeremy Allouche. This interesting blog article by the social scientist Jeremy Allouche, is looking at the WEF Nexus from a different perspective by raising questions that go beyond the technical focus in engineering or environmental economics, or the mere search for efficient or effective solutions. Which methods and approaches are being applied – beyond expert/scientific-led methods, to transdisciplinary methods where local and experiential knowledge are part of the mix? How can different...

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Jobs

Vacancy // Full-Time Position 1 Researcher and 1 Research Assistant in Green Infrastructure Assessment

This project is one of the work packages in “Understanding Innovative Initiatives for Governing Food, Water and Energy Nexus in Cities (IFWEN)”, which is a funded international project under the Sustainable Urbanisation Global Initiative/Food-Water-Energy Nexus programme established by the Belmont Forum and the Joint Programming Initiative Urban Europe.

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