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Nexus Regional Dialogue in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)


  • EU
  • BMZ
  • Arab League 730x730
  • Logo GIZ 730x730
  • #projectOrganisation:

    Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

  • #projectPartners:

    League of Arab States (LAS)

  • #projectImplementationPeriod:

    July 2020 – June 2023

  • #projectBudget:


  • #projectBeneficiaryCountries:

    Tunisia, Egypt, Jordan

  • #projectFunding:

    German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), and European Union (EU)

Key Publications

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MENA Policy Brief Series // The WEF Nexus in the Arab Region



The WEF Nexus in the Arab Region Series is published by the League of Arab States (LAS), with technical and financial support from the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). The series comprises 6 policy briefs with different focus areas on the implementation of the WEF Nexus in the MENA region. All policy briefs are available both in English and in Arabic.


Review // Is the development of desalination compatible with sustainable development of the Arabian Gulf?



W.J.F. Le Quesne, L. Fernand, T.S. Ali, O. Andresa, M. Antonpoulou, J.A. Burt, W.W. Dougherty, P.J. Edson, J. El Kharraz, J. Glavan, R.J. Mamiit, K.D. Reid, A. Sajwani, D. Sheahan. The environmental status of the Gulf has wide importance to Gulf Cooperation Council states. However, desalination is known to pose adverse risks to the marine environment and large increases in the desalination capacity in the Gulf are predicted; therefore, this paper asks whether the development of desalination capacity in the Gulf is compatible with sustainable development of the Gulf region. To address this, this paper draws together scenarios for the development of desalination in the Gulf, with knowledge of the Gulf marine environment and the environmental impacts of desalination, to consider the potential nature and extent of desalination impacts on the Gulf marine ecosystem in relation to sustainable development.

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Policy Brief // The WEF Nexus Approach: An Imperative Enabler for Sustainable Development in the MENA Region



By Waleed Khalil Al-Zubari, Khalid Nahar Alrwis. This Policy Brief suggests four recommendations to foster the WEF Nexus approach in the MENA region.

Spis tunisia

SPIS Study // Impact of Solar Pumping Irrigation Systems in Tunisia



This case study analyzes the impact of solar-powered irrigation systems (SPIS)on the groundwater use as well as its impact on a socio-economic level in Tunisia. It is based on interviews with a sample of Tunisian farmers and provides recommendations to promote the sustainable use of the technology. The study is published in French with an executive summary in English.

Report WEF Nexus Water wastewater Lebanon

Report // ​Water-Energy Nexus of Water and Wastewater Service in Lebanon



The Issam Fares Institute for Public Policy and International Affairs (IFI) and Oxfam in Lebanon published a series of reports under the “Water Energy Nexus of Water and Wastewater Services in Lebanon” project, which aims to examine the role of energy, particularly electricity, in Lebanon’s water and wastewater service provision. The reports investigate the legal, social, environmental, and economic aspects along with existing legal, policy, and institutional frameworks pertaining to the water, wastewater, and energy sectors. They also cover the obstacles the sectors face and possible steps for improving energy efficiency in the water and wastewater sector.

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Étude Nexus Tunisie // Evaluation Nexus Interdépendances des secteurs de l’eau, de l’énergie et de l’alimentation en Tunisie



This study elaborates an assessment of the WEF Nexus for Tunisia, applying and adjusting already existing Nexus methodologies to the Tunisian context and its priorities. In this assessment the most relevant linkages, trade-offs, possible synergies and opportunities that are of special interest for Tunisia are identified and thus give a first assessment of the existing or potential Nexus response options (political, administrative or technical). The study is published in French with an executive summary in English.

Regional Context

Water Scarcity... 

The Middle East and North Africa Region is the most water scarce region in the world, holding only 1.4% of the world’s freshwater resources. It is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, affecting water availability and food security. The region is endowed with half of the world’s known oil and gas reserves, and increasingly pressured by decarbonisation policies and low-carbon technology developments. Overexploitation of natural resources, climate change effects and lack of intersectoral coordination further underlie the need for integrated natural resources management. 


Why are WEF Nexus Solutions Needed?

  • Water Scarcity

    The MENA region is the most water scarce region in the world

  • 80%

    Agriculture in MENA is responsible for more than 80% of overall water use

  • Until 2035

    Primary energy demand in the region is forecasted to increase consistently at a rate of 1.9% per year until 2035

  • Water
  • Food

Water and Agriculture

  • Water
  • NRD icon turbine shaped

Water and Energy

  • NRD icon turbine shaped
  • Food

Energy and Agriculture


Key Activities 

Kicking the Nexus approach into high gear

Building on the successes of the first phase, Phase II of the Nexus Dialogue MENA will focus on the practical application of the Nexus approach.

The main objectives will include:

  • Supporting cross-sectoral coordination in natural resources management at municipal and national governmental level.
  • Implementing demonstration projects and conducting impact assessments (i.e. cost-benefit analyses, etc.).
  • Showcasing the added-value of WEF Nexus solutions to mobilize financing and influence policy recommendations.
  • Providing trainings and webinars on WEF Nexus case studies and best practices, focusing on their financial viability.
  • Promoting the integrated approach at national, regional and international events

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