Figure 2: Energy consumption percentage in food by sectors in Ecuador.
In Latin America and the Caribbean, the interrelationships among water, energy, and food are complex, partly due to their development models, which are intensive in their use of these resources. This research aims to recognize and quantify the use of water and energy in food in Ecuador by identifying the main interrelationships, together with their causes and current impacts. Regarding methodology, this research uses sectoral data available at the national level and international databases to obtain cross indexes. The following indicators were sought: percentage of energy demanded by food in different stages, extraction of water for agricultural use, food energy productivity, virtual water, and embodied energy. As a result, it was estimated that food consumes 50% of imported energy and cocoa stands out with 7.6 km3 of water footprint; the products with the highest energy consumption are shrimp with 2090 KBOE and fish with 1459 KBOE. Fishing and aquaculture products present with a significantly high consumption level. Nearly all the virtual water and embodied energy are exported in banana, cocoa, and shrimp. Exporting groups make extensive use of the country’s water and energy resources.
Páez, C.F.T.; Salazar, O.V. The Water–Energy–Food Nexus: An Analysis of Food Sustainability in Ecuador. Resources 2022, 11, 90. https://doi.org/10.3390/resour...
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