River Basins // Application of a water–energy–food nexus framework for the Duero river basin in Spain
By Beatriz Mayor, Elena López-Gunn, Fermín I. Villarroya and Esperanza Montero. This paper proposes a framework for the identification, assessment and analysis of the water–energy–food nexus at a basin scale. This methodology is applied to the Duero river basin in Spain to detect the most important conflicts derived from water, food and energy interdependencies. Some of the most important issues are the limitations posed by rising energy prices for irrigated agriculture due to modernization, limitations to water treatment, and the possible emergence of new water demands for energy by hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas and enhanced bioenergy.