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Research Papers, Publications and Books

Nexus in Asia // Water-energy Nexus in China's Electric Power System

By Saige Wang, Tao Cao, and Bin Chen. The electric power system is water–intensive, which aggravates the water scarcity of China. Deeper understanding of the role of electric transmission systems coupling with virtual water flows is critical for sustainable development of China.

 In this study, the flux and direction of virtual water within power system were firstly analyzed. Water scarcity index (WSI) was also incorporated to evaluate the virtual scarce water flows. Then, the authors calculated the hybrid electricity flux by multiplying electricity flux with its proportion of total electricity consumption to elucidate the significance of flux on the node's electricity supply. Finally, the authors studied the virtual scarce water flow network and hybrid electricity flux network via throughflow analysis to shed light on the nexus within the power system.

The results show that electricity inflows bring in 27.99 GL of virtual scarce water concurrent with 10.865 TW h of electricity, and 47.47 GL of virtual scarce water concurrent with 15.072 TW h of electricity into the north and central regions of China. It can be concluded that a large volume of virtual scarce water (16.3 GL) is transferred via the electric power system, mainly from inland areas to coastal areas, which is roughly the opposite of the distribution of China's water resources.

By doing this, the authors aim to evaluate the energy-water nexus rate in the electricity power system to balance the tradeoff between electricity supply and the regional inequity of water resources.


ScienceDirect website (open access)


May 2017


Energy Procedia, Volume 105, May 2017, Pages 3972-3977

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Ecosystems / WEFE Nexus

Journal Paper // A Decision Support Tool to Enhance Agricultural Growth in the Mékrou River Basin (West Africa)

By Angel Udiasa, Marco Pastoria, Céline Dondeynaza, Cesar Carmona Moreno, Abdou Ali, Luigi Cattaneo, Javier Cano. This paper describes the implementation of E-Water, an open software Decision Support System (DSS), designed to help local managers assess the Water Energy Food Environment (WEFE) nexus. E-Water aims at providing optimal management solutions to enhance food crop production at river basin level. The DSS was applied in the transboundary Mékrou river basin, shared among Benin, Burkina...

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Climate Change

Review Article // Climate Change Adaptation through the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Southern Africa

By Sylvester Mpandeli, Dhesigen Naidoo, Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi, Charles Nhemachena, Luxon Nhamo, Stanley Liphadzi, Sithabile Hlahla and Albert T. Modi. Climate change is a complex and cross-cutting problem that needs an integrated and transformative systems approach to respond to the challenge. This review highlights climate change impacts on water, energy, and food resources in southern Africa, while exploring mitigation and adaptation opportunities. The review further recommends strategies to...

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Policy Papers

Resource Use Efficiency under Growing Natural Resource Scarcity // Research Guide for Water-Energy-Food Nexus Analysis

By Claudia Ringler, Md. Hossain Alam Mondal, Helen Berga Paulos, Alisher Mirzabaev, Clemens Breisinger, Manfred Wiebelt, Khalid Siddig, Grace Villamor, Tingju Zhu, Elizabeth Bryan. Insights from “The Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Global, Basin and Local Case Studies of Resource Use Efficiency under Growing Natural Resource Scarcity” project.

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