Saving fresh water is a big challenge for the next generation due to enhanced living standards and population growth. In addition, the expansion of agricultural and industrial activities is causing unmatched demands for fresh water supplies across Egypt. The Nile River is Egypt’s main water resource, representing 69.4% of the total water resources, while rainwater, torrential water and groundwater, as well as recycled agricultural and sanitary drainage water and desalinated seawater, are estimated at about 30.6%. Smart drip irrigation systems are in great demand, especially in Upper Egypt. SDG’s of the circular economy and the WEF nexus lead to full implementation of drip irrigation systems, achieving ~6.6 BM3/year of direct saving from fresh water and/or doubling the cultivated area. In addition to PV tubes and other utilities, renewable energy, e.g, photovoltaic panels, will posses an important role in low-energy driven drip irrigation systems, reducing fossil-uses, CO2 emissions and devolving more sustainable processes that are less dependent on conventional energy sources. The current research work is a case study of the substitution of flood with drip irrigation, and its positive advantages for the Egyptian agricultural economy and capital expenditures (capex), which depends on the country’s infrastructure and availability of utilities.
Abdelzaher, M.A.; Awad, M.M. Sustainable Development Goals for the Circular Economy and the Water-Food Nexus: Full Implementation of New Drip Irrigation Technologies in Upper Egypt. Sustainability 2022, 14, 13883. https://doi.org/10.3390/su1421...
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