Water, energy and nutrients are interlinked extensively with food and each other as shown in the monitoring, analysis and evaluation framework for the Water Energy Nutrient Food (WENF) nexus by Haitsma Mulier et al. (2022).
This study aims to contribute to the quantification of the Water Energy Nutrient Food nexus regarding urban agriculture. It investigates the water, energy and nutrient demand of urban farms along with the presence of those resources in urban waters at three case study sites. Demands for water and nutrients (nitrogen & phosphorus) at a greenhouse in Amsterdam and a community farm and a container farm in East-Boston could be met by resources present in urban waters (rainwater and wastewater) in the direct vicinity. Whether enough energy is available to operate each of these farms is related to the type of agriculture.