event 26 Nov 2020

Publication // The State of Food and Agriculture 2020 - Overcoming Water Challenges in Agriculture

With this report, FAO is sending a strong message: water shortages and scarcity in agriculture must be addressed immediately and boldly if our pledge to commit to achieve the SDGs is to be taken seriously. It offers appropriate options for addressing water-related challenges in order to improve food security and nutrition and ensure environmental sustainability, in the spirit of the 2030 Agenda.

FAO The state of Food and Agriculture 2020 Overcoming the water challenges in agriculture Cover
There is no “one-size-fits-all” approach to addressing water shortages and scarcity. Different countries – and even different regions within countries – have different characteristics and face different challenges.


Intensifying water constraints threaten food security and nutrition. Thus, urgent action is needed to make water use in agriculture more sustainable and equitable. Irrigated agriculture remains by far the largest user of freshwater, but scarcity of freshwater is a growing problem owing to increasing demand and competition for freshwater resources. At the same time, rainfed agriculture is facing increasing precipitation variability driven by climate change. These trends will exacerbate disputes among water users and inequality in access to water, especially for small-scale farmers, the rural poor and other vulnerable populations.

The State of Food and Agriculture 2020 presents new estimates on the pervasiveness of water scarcity in irrigated agriculture and of water shortages in rainfed agriculture, as well as on the number of people affected. It finds major differences across countries, and also substantial spatial variation within countries. This evidence informs a discussion of how countries may determine appropriate policies and interventions, depending on the nature and magnitude of the problem, but also on other factors such as the type of agricultural production system and countries’ level of development and their political structures. Based on this, the publication provides guidance on how countries can prioritize policies and interventions to overcome water constraints in agriculture, while ensuring efficient, sustainable and equitable access to water.

FAO The state of Food and Agriculture 2020 Overcoming the water challenges in agriculture

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November 2020


FAO, Rome


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