event 29 Jun 2021

Publication // Smart Climate Resilient and Efficient Integrated Waste to Clean Energy System in a Developing Country: Industry 4.0

By Anthony Njuguna Matheri, Belaid Mohamed and Jane Catherine Ngila. In this chapter from the African Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation, edited by Walter Leal Filho, Nicholas Oguge, Desalegn Ayal and Lydia AdelekeIzael da Silva, the authors discuss the climate, land, energy and water (CLEW) Nexus in South Africa.

Cover African Handbook of climate change adaptation


Climate change impacts a natural and human system on the entire globe. Climate related extreme weather such as drought, floods, and heat waves alters the ecosystems that society depends on. Climate, land, energy, and water systems (CLEWS) are a critical aspect of high importance on resource availability, distribution, and interconnection. The nexus provides a set of guidelines to South Africa that aims on creating a level playing field for all sectors while achieving the aims of the SDGs that are cross-sectoral and multilevel approaches to climate change. The nexus expressed three domains that included resources, governance, and security. It integrated a smart climate resilient with inclusion of the governance and involvement of the stakeholders. Recognition of spatial and sector interdependencies should inform policies, investment and institutional for enhancing nexus security and climate change towards making transition green carbon deals. The nexus offers an integrated approach that analyzes the trade-offs and synergies between the different sectors in order to maximize the efficiency of using the resources that adapt institutional and optimum policy arrangements. Economic transformation and creation of employment through green economy is one of the COP26 green deal agendas in curbing the carbon emissions (green house emission, industrial processes, fuel combustion, and fugitive emissions) as mitigation to climate change, which is cost-effective and economically efficient. The future climate change policy in the developing countries is likely to be both promoted by climate technology transfer and public-private cooperation (cross-sector partnership) through the technology mechanism of the nexus and inclusion of the gender.


Adaptation; CLEWS; Climate change; Climate technology; Ecosystem; Green economy; Policy; Resilience; SDGs; Nexus

Conceptual framework of the regional water-energy-food nexus action plan. © The authors
Conceptual framework of the regional water-energy-food nexus action plan. © The authors

About the African Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation

This open access book discusses current thinking and presents the main issues and challenges associated with climate change in Africa. It introduces evidences from studies and projects which show how climate change adaptation is being - and may continue to be successfully implemented in African countries. Thanks to its scope and wide range of themes surrounding climate change, the ambition is that this book will be a lead publication on the topic, which may be regularly updated and hence capture further works.
Climate change is a major global challenge. However, some geographical regions are more severely affected than others. One of these regions is the African continent. Due to a combination of unfavourable socio-economic and meteorological conditions, African countries are particularly vulnerable to climate change and its impacts.

The recently released IPCC special report "Global Warming of 1.5º C" outlines the fact that keeping global warming by the level of 1.5º C is possible, but also suggested that an increase by 2º C could lead to crises with crops (agriculture fed by rain could drop by 50% in some African countries by 2020) and livestock production, could damage water supplies and pose an additional threat to coastal areas. The 5th Assessment Report produced by IPCC predicts that wheat may disappear from Africa by 2080, and that maize— a staple—will fall significantly in southern Africa. Also, arid and semi-arid lands are likely to increase by up to 8%, with severe ramifications for livelihoods, poverty eradication and meeting the SDGs. Pursuing appropriate adaptation strategies is thus vital, in order to address the current and future challenges posed by a changing climate.

It is against this background that the "African Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation" is being published. It contains papers prepared by scholars, representatives from social movements, practitioners and members of governmental agencies, undertaking research and/or executing climate change projects in Africa, and working with communities across the African continent. Encompassing over 100 contributions from across Africa, it is the most comprehensive publication on climate change adaptation in Africa ever produced.


Matheri A.N., Mohamed B., Ngila J.C. (2021) Smart Climate Resilient and Efficient Integrated Waste to Clean Energy System in a Developing Country: Industry 4.0. In: Leal Filho W., Oguge N., Ayal D., Adeleke L., da Silva I. (eds) African Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-45106-6_69


May 2021


Springer, Cham


Smart Climate Resilient and Efficient Integrated Waste to Clean Energy System in a Developing Country: Industry 4.0

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