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Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung
This project is co-funded by the European Union

Research Papers, Publications and Books  |  , Resource  |  , Asia  |   8 Nov 2017

Water-Energy Nexus // Coal-Based Power Generation and Conversion - Saving Water

This report was commissioned by the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) to compile and analyse information on technology developments, best practices and current policy measures related to water use for coal-power generation and clean coal technologies in APEC economies. Information was collected from publicly available policy documents, research papers, technical reports, trade publications and supplemented by DNV GL’s internal knowledgebase. The information from documents in the public domain was supplemented by contacting major utilities such as Enel and Eskom to get additional information on their publications.

More than half of the APEC economies generate a significant (>33%) portion of their electricity from coal. However, the focus on clean development necessitates reduction in water consumption for power generation, especially where water resources are stressed. The volume of water required for power generation depends on several factors, such as the generation technology, type of cooling deployed, and site operating conditions. The water used for these plants in turn consumes considerable amounts of energy as this water needs to undergo various physical and chemical treatment processes. The report reviews technologies to reduce water consumption for coal power generation.


APEC website


February 2017


APEC Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation
SOM Steering Committee on Economic and Technical Cooperation(SCE), Energy Working Group(EWG)

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Implementation and Case Studies  |  , Resource  |  17 Nov 2017

Water-Energy Nexus // Quantifying Water and Energy Linkages in Irrigation: Experiences From Viet Nam

There is a need to better understand the feasibility of and incentives for farmers for adopting High-efficiency Irrigation Systems (HEIS) such as drip and sprinkler irrgations systems for various cropping systems and associated...› more

Tools and Databases  |  , Resource  |  17 Nov 2017

FE2W // Guide to the Risks and Options Assessment for Decision Making (ROAD) Process

The Risks and Options Assessment for Decision-Making (ROAD) process enables decision-makers to understand and manage complex risks across connected food-energy-environment-water systems. This Guide supports the use of the ROAD...› more

Research Papers, Publications and Books  |  , Resource  |   9 Nov 2017

Book // Water-Energy-Food Nexus - Principles and Practices

Ed. by P. Abdul Salam, Sangam Shrestha, Vishnu Prasad Pandey, Anil K. Anal. This overview collection is meant to be a resource for students, research scholars and professionals in academic institutions with strong interests in...› more