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This project is co-funded by the European Union
Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung

Research Papers, Publications and Books  |  , Resource  |  , Asia  |   8 Nov 2017

Water-Energy Nexus // Coal-Based Power Generation and Conversion - Saving Water

This report was commissioned by the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) to compile and analyse information on technology developments, best practices and current policy measures related to water use for coal-power generation and clean coal technologies in APEC economies. Information was collected from publicly available policy documents, research papers, technical reports, trade publications and supplemented by DNV GL’s internal knowledgebase. The information from documents in the public domain was supplemented by contacting major utilities such as Enel and Eskom to get additional information on their publications.

More than half of the APEC economies generate a significant (>33%) portion of their electricity from coal. However, the focus on clean development necessitates reduction in water consumption for power generation, especially where water resources are stressed. The volume of water required for power generation depends on several factors, such as the generation technology, type of cooling deployed, and site operating conditions. The water used for these plants in turn consumes considerable amounts of energy as this water needs to undergo various physical and chemical treatment processes. The report reviews technologies to reduce water consumption for coal power generation.


APEC website


February 2017


APEC Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation
SOM Steering Committee on Economic and Technical Cooperation(SCE), Energy Working Group(EWG)

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Resource  |  , Infographics  |  18 Apr 2018

A Simple Shift to More Sustainable Eating // Plant-based Burger Could Save Emissions Equal to 2 Million Cars

By Richard Waite, Daniel Vennard and Gerard Pozzi. Americans eat approximately 10 billion burgers each year. Replacing 30 percent of the beef in those burgers with mushrooms would, according to a study by the World Research...› more

Research Papers, Publications and Books  |  , Resource  |  , MENA  |  17 Apr 2018

Nexus in the MENA Region // Assessment of the Water-Energy Nexus in the Municipal Water Sector in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

By Homoud Al-Mutrafi, Waleed Al-Zubari, Alaa El-Sadek and Ibrahim Abdel Gelil. This paper performs an assessment of the water-energy nexus in the municipal sector of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, where the electric energy...› more

Policy Papers  |  , Resource  |  , South America  |  17 Apr 2018

Strengthening Climate Resilience in Urban Amazonia // Experiences from Tarapoto and the Cumbaza Watershed in San Martín, Peru

This brief presents a Water-Energy-Food (WEF) nexus case study of the Cumbaza River watershed in San Martin, Peru. The dynamic socio-ecological pressures and complex water-energy-food system interdependencies that exist in...› more