The Nexus Platform is enabled by

Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung
This project is co-funded by the European Union

(C) unsplash / Bhupesh Talwar

Research Papers, Publications and Books  |  , Resource  |   4 Apr 2017

Transboundary Water // An urban systems framework to assess the trans-boundary food-energy-water nexus: implementation in Delhi, India

By Anu Ramaswami, Dana Boyer, Ajay Singh Nagpure, Andrew Fang, Shelly Bogra, Bhavik Bakshi, Elliot Cohen and Ashish Rao-Ghorpade. his paper develops a generalizable systems framework to analyze the food-energy-water (FEW) nexus from an urban systems perspective, connecting in- and trans-boundary interactions, quantifying multiple environmental impacts of community-wide FEW provisioning to cities, and visualizing FEW supply-chain risks posed to cities by the environment.

Delhi's community-wide food demand includes household consumption by socio-economic-strata, visitors- and industrial food-use. This demand depends 90%, 76%, and 86% on trans-boundary supply of FEW, respectively. Supply chain data reveal unique features of trans-boundary FEW production regions (e.g. irrigation-electricity needs and GHG intensities of power-plants), yielding supply chain-informed coupled energy-water-GHG footprints of FEW provisioning to Delhi. Agri-food supply contributes to both GHG (19%) and water-footprints (72%–82%) of Delhi's FEW provisioning, with milk, rice and wheat dominating these footprints.

Analysis of FEW interactions within Delhi found >75% in-boundary water-use for food is for urban agriculture and >76% in-boundary energy-use for food is from cooking fuels. Food waste-to-energy and energy-intensity of commercial and industrial food preparation are key data gaps. Visualizing supply chains shows >75% of water embodied in Delhi's FEW supply is extracted from locations over-drafting ground water. These baseline data enable evaluation of future urban FEW scenarios, comparing impacts of demand shifts, production shifts, and emerging technologies and policies, within and outside of cities.


IOPScience website (open access)


February 2017


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Implementation and Case Studies  |  , Resource  |  17 Nov 2017

Water-Energy Nexus // Quantifying Water and Energy Linkages in Irrigation: Experiences From Viet Nam

There is a need to better understand the feasibility of and incentives for farmers for adopting High-efficiency Irrigation Systems (HEIS) such as drip and sprinkler irrgations systems for various cropping systems and associated...› more

Tools and Databases  |  , Resource  |  17 Nov 2017

FE2W // Guide to the Risks and Options Assessment for Decision Making (ROAD) Process

The Risks and Options Assessment for Decision-Making (ROAD) process enables decision-makers to understand and manage complex risks across connected food-energy-environment-water systems. This Guide supports the use of the ROAD...› more

Research Papers, Publications and Books  |  , Resource  |   9 Nov 2017

Book // Water-Energy-Food Nexus - Principles and Practices

Ed. by P. Abdul Salam, Sangam Shrestha, Vishnu Prasad Pandey, Anil K. Anal. This overview collection is meant to be a resource for students, research scholars and professionals in academic institutions with strong interests in...› more