Nexus Region Middle East and North Africa Region — MENA

The Middle East and North Africa Region, in short MENA, stretches over 6,000 km from Morocco in the West to Iran in the East. Despite significant subregional difference, the entire area is faced with similar challenges. All MENA countries have to cope with a water deficit, while they strive to achieve a self-sustaining agriculture at the same time. Energy production in the region still strongly relies on fossil fuels, even though there is a high potential for renewable energies. Institutions and administration are dominated by sectoral thinking, but bridging approaches are developing.

Resources

Research Papers, Publications and Books

MENA // Food-Water Security and Virtual Water Trade in the Middle East and North Africa

By Marta Antonelli and Stefania Tamea. The purpose of this study is to analyze the political economy of food-water security in the water-scarce Middle East and North Africa region. The study deploys the lens of virtual water trade to determine how the region's economies have met their rising food-water requirements over the past three decades. It is shown that the region's water and food security currently depend to a considerable extent on water from outside the region, ‘embedded’ in food...

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Modelling and Assessment

Assessment // Rapid Assessment of the Water-Energy-Food-Climate Nexus in Six Selected Basins of North Africa and West Asia undergoing Transitions and Scarcity Threats

By Caroline King and Hadi Jaafar. Existing strategies for management of water scarcity in the Middle East and North Africa negotiate a complex system of trade-offs between water, energy, and food production. The effects of rural households' green water management practices on basin-level water, energy, food and carbon stocks and flows are sketched qualitatively in six basin agro-ecosystems. The case for increased strategic support for green agricultural water management practices appears...

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Research Papers, Publications and Books

The Nexus as a Political Commodity // Agricultural Development, Water Policy and Elite Rivalry in Egypt

By Harry Verhoeven. Thinking of the interconnections between water, food, energy and climate is nothing new in the Nile Basin; it has long been anchored in political struggles. For 200 years, Egypt's political economy has been defined by water use patterns and food security strategies that debunk the technocratic myth that rapid growth, interaction with global markets and technological modernization eliminate poor governance practices and allocative inefficiencies. In contrast, the prism of the...

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Research Papers, Publications and Books

To What End? // Drip Irrigation and the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Morocco

By Guy Jobbins, Jack Kalpakian, Abdelouahid Chriyaa, Ahmed Legrouri and El Houssine El Mzouri. This article draws on three case studies of drip irrigation adoption in Morocco to consider the water–energy–food nexus concept from a bottom-up perspective. Findings indicate that small farmers' adoption of drip irrigation is conditional, that water and energy efficiency does not necessarily reduce overall consumption, and that adoption of drip irrigation (and policies supporting it) can create...

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Research Papers, Publications and Books

Energy Cost of Irrigation Policy in Morocco // A Social Accounting Matrix Assessment

By Mohammed Rachid Doukkali and Caroline Lejars. The objective of this study was to assess the consumption and the multiplier effect of the use of energy and irrigation water for rainfed and irrigated agriculture at the national level in Morocco. Using a social accounting matrix, the direct and indirect economic effects of subsidizing energy used by agriculture were identified. The results show that irrigation water policy in Morocco, which targets ‘water-saving’ techniques, has increased the...

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Research Papers, Publications and Books

Towards a Water-Energy-Food Nexus Policy // Realizing the Blue and Green Virtual Water of Agriculture in Jordan

By Samer Talozi, Yasmeen Al Sakaji and Amelia Altz-Stamm. Virtual water is an important addendum to how we view a country's water resources. This study examines the virtual water embedded in Jordan's agricultural produce and its impact on future water–energy–food policies. Blue and green virtual waters are calculated from data on rainfall, crop patterns, yields, and water requirements at the district level. Results highlight the advantages of blue water usage in the Jordan Valley and of...

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News

BMZ Strategy for Interlinkages Between Water, Energy and Agriculture (Nexus Perspective) // Examples from the MENA Region

By Maarit Thiem and Nisreen Lahham. The German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) has published its new “Strategy for Interlinkages Between Water, Energy and Agriculture (Nexus Perspective) – Synergies and Conflicting Goals” as a guideline for German development cooperation. This article introduces the Nexus strategy by highlighting how some of the fields of action identified in the strategy are currently being addressed in the MENA region.

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Modelling and Assessment

Water-Energy-Food Nexus Assessment of Solar Energy Farming Interactions // The Azraq Case in Jordan with Insights from India

By Mohammad Al-Saidi. This report focuses on experiences with solar energy farming (SEF), and in particular the solar energy farming project in the Azraq basin in Jordan (referred to as SEF Azraq). SEF Azraq sought to encourage farmers to substitute farming with livelihoods as solar farmers. This report aims at generating relevant recommendations for the implementation of SEF projects in Jordan and the Arab region by integrating lessons learnt from SEF Azraq, insights from a water-energy-food...

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Stockholm World Water Week 2018 (logo)
Wetlands

SWWW 2018 Event // MENA Focus - Benefits for Ecosystems and Wetlands through the Nexus

In the Mediterranean, wetlands are among its richest ecosystems, providing exceptional value and services including water purification, flood control, carbon sink and shoreline stability. However, they are also among its most threatened ecosystems with more than half having disappeared during the 20th century, and most of the rest under degradation or artificialization, mainly through water over-abstraction, urban development and tourism expansion, pollution and drainage.

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Media

Gulf News // Energy-Water Nexus Crucial to Middle East

By: Saadallah Al Fathi. Without access to the precious liquid, the oil and gas industry flounders, and without energy, the region goes thirsty.

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