“Climate change will make a difficult situation much worse, and will affect millions of people in the Middle East and North Africa region” said Ghanem, “this is especially true of the impact on scarce water resources, already the lowest in the world, which will become even scarcer, threatening critical industries such as agriculture, on which millions in poorer, rural areas depend for their livelihoods.”
Nearly two-thirds of agriculture in the MENA region relies solely on rainfall, which makes it especially vulnerable to changes in temperature and precipitation. As global temperatures rise, they will rise even faster in MENA, causing more frequent and severe droughts. The 2015 drought in Morocco destroyed over half the wheat harvest and led to a 1.5 percent drop in the country’s Gross Domestic Output. About one quarter of the region’s workforce is employed in agriculture, in Morocco it is as high as 40 percent, but as climate change impacts the sector’s ability to support livelihoods, more people will move to cities looking for work. Apart from increased pollution and overcrowding, stepped up migration to the region’s large coastal cities exposes people to another risk: a rise in sea levels. If global temperatures get 1.5 degrees centigrade hotter, the Mediterranean is expected to rise between 0.2 and 0.5 meters, which could affect up to 25 million people between Algiers and Beirut.
“Countries in the region are aware of the challenges, and have begun taking action,” said Ghanem. “Morocco has taken steps to adapt its agriculture, with better water management and more climate-resistant crops, while also lowering its emissions by eliminating most energy subsidies and with the construction of the large solar plant at Ouarzazate. This is the kind of comprehensive climate action we will support across the region, with a special focus on the poorest and most vulnerable.”
The MENA Climate Action Plan is based on a set of five commitments that draw on the Bank’s strengths in climate financing, global experience and building partnerships. The first is to shift more of Bank financing to climate action, and the second complementary commitment is to almost double the support for adaptation to the new climate reality. This will include support for social safety nets that protect the most vulnerable to climate change, urban design and disaster preparedness that protect people and property from extreme weather and its consequences, as well as better management of natural resources, especially in vulnerable eco-systems.
The third commitment is to support the policy reforms that will lay the foundations for a green future, such as lifting costly fossil fuel subsidies that encourage inefficient use of energy, and creating the right regulations to encourage private investments in renewable energy. The fourth is to meet the costs of transitioning to green growth by using Bank programs to attract private finance, and guarantees to lower the risk for private investors. The fifth and final commitment is to build regional partnerships to develop common solutions for common challenges such as water scarcity and access to energy.
Source: World Bank website