Country Profiles

Nexus Country Profile // Peru

Peru is located from 0°S to 18°S in western South America; it borders Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Three contrasting geographic regions exist in the country: Coastal region: a long, desertic plain with a very dry climate. The region stretches along the coast on the west of the country and is approximately 50-100 km wide. The highlands: the mountainous region running down the middle of the country, with the majority of the land at an elevation of above 3000 m and well defined wet and dry seasons. The Amazon rainforest: a warm and humid tropical climate located to the east of the mountain range. Most of the area is covered in impenetrable rainforest.

Highlighted Nexus-related challenges faced by Peru

  • Water scarcity in the highly-populated coastal region: The coastal region (including Lima) is extremely dry, yet most of the population and economic activities are centred there. Extremely high water demand from agriculture coupled with low irrigation efficiencies. The Ministry of housing, Construction and Sanitation plans to build numerous desalination plants to ensure the drinking water supply.
  • Non-diversified energy mix and high dependency on water availability (hydropower): Peru aims to have a 60% renewable energy mix by 2025.
  • Food security, especially in terms of food accessibility, is classified as low in the country: The high Andean areas are extremely vulnerable to climate change, threatening food production in these areas.



December 2018


Nexus Dialogue Programme

About the Nexus Country Profiles

The Nexus Country Profiles give an overview of the Nexus-related challenges faced by a country, show the specifics of the water, energy and food/agricultural sectors and summarise the water-energy, water-food and energy-food interrelations. Nexus-relevant aspects of the country’s governance are highlighted and allow for a better understanding of possible entry points for integrated management and policy planning. The profiles culminate in a tri-sectoral Nexus evaluation and food-energy-water security index.

The country profiles are developed in the frame of the  Nexus Dialogue Programme, jointly funded by the European Union and the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), Germany, and implemented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) in cooperation with regional partners. Research for and elaboration of the country profiles is supported by the Institute for Technology and Resource Management in the Tropics and Subtropics (ITT) at the TH Köln – University of Applied Sciences, Germany.

Further information

Further reading

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