Located in a semi-arid and arid zone, Iran is suffering from growing challenges of water scarcity. In the paradigm of a circular economy, the reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture is currently regarded as a possible solution for alleviating the issues of water scarcity and pollution. Accordingly, this research aims to assess the use of polluted water in the integrated management of water resources in Semnan. The research used the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) software package to model and analyze the water sector. Also, the Bayesian network method was used to assess the risk of using polluted water and its effects on humans and plants. The research explored two general scenarios for the study site of Semnan. The first scenario assumes the increase in population, crops (food), and industries, and the second has the same assumptions plus an increase in agricultural efficiency (food production). Based on the results, the agricultural, urban, and industrial water demands are 37, 0.06, and 0.01 million m3 in the base year, respectively. The water demand in the next years will be higher due to population growth. Finally, it is safer to use the wastewater of both treatment plants of the region (Mehdishahr and Semnan) in the industry than in other sectors. Additionally, the wastewater of the Mehdishahr Sewage Treatment Plant is more reliable than that of the Semnan Sewage Treatment Plant.
M. R. Safaeian, M. Ardestani, A. Sarang; The perspective of a smart city by endorsing the nexus Bermuda triangle with the risk assessment of polluted water reuse in integrated water and food security management: the case of Semnan, Iran. Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination 1 December 2022; 12 (4): 403–419. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wrd.2022.047
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