Fig. 4. Overview of the modelling structure showing the key inputs to the energy model and different energy modules.
The Water-Energy-Food (WEF) framework is widely used to address sustainability and resource management questions. However, many WEF methods miss engaging with stakeholders in the process. In this study, we introduce a stakeholder-driven and model-supported robust nexus decision-making framework. This methodology is exemplified by a case study in the Souss-Massa basin (SMB) which has significant importance for the agricultural sector in Morocco. However, the water scarcity exacerbated by climate change, overexploitation of groundwater and heavy use of fossil fuels for pumping is threatening the future of this fertile land. An integrated agriculture, water and energy model was developed to explore various potential solutions or scenarios such as desalination, wastewater reuse and improved water productivity. The analysis revealed that engaging with stakeholders and developing common robust nexus decision metrics is essential to establishing a shared and transparent approach to address the complicated nexus challenges. It also showed that no one solution can address all nexus challenges and highlighted the need for an integrated strategy that stimulates the contributions from different sectors. Finally, the transition from fossil fuel groundwater pumping to solar pumping is shown to be economically and environmentally viable.
Youssef Almulla, Camilo Ramirez, Brian Joyce, Annette Huber-Lee, Francesco Fuso-Nerini, From participatory process to robust decision-making: An Agriculture-water-energy nexus analysis for the Souss-Massa basin in Morocco,
Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 70, 2022, Pages 314-338, ISSN 0973-0826, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.....
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