Conceptual design for Wadi-Dara valley per capita.
In the next twenty years, the scarcity of food shortage and drinking water will appear in Egypt due to the growth of industries and agriculture. This paper develops a conceptual design of the new technologies in the field of water–energy–food in new cities. Border lines are the internal relationship, external influence, and linkage system evaluation for WEF nexus. The major problems of using fossil energy in desalination are emissions and non-renewability, as well as the preference for dispersed freshwater production instead of concentrated output. The design of a desalination system that is integrated with renewable energies is critical these days. This type of system can also reduce the production of environmental pollutants due to reduced energy consumption and transfer of freshwater. GIS data from the United Nations have confirmed the existence of an underground reservoir in Wadi-Dara that can cultivate 1000 acres using smart farming techniques to reach a circular economy for an integrated solution between the water–energy nexus. The possibility of cultivating a hundred acres in Wadi-Dara on the Red Sea coast exists, through which about one million people could be settled. In this comprehensive review, the authors conducted a deep study in order to establish a sustainable integrated lifestyle in the Dara Valley region in terms of the availability of potable water, clean energy, and agriculture. Sustainable integrated solutions were conducted for seawater desalination using beach sand filtration wells as a pretreatment for seawater using renewable energy, e.g., wind energy (18% wind turbines), and photovoltaic panels (77% PV panels). Strategic food will be cultivated using smart farming that includes an open ponds cultivation system of microalgal cells to synthesis (5.0% of bio-fuel). Aqua agriculture and aquaponics will cultivate marine culture and integrate mangrove, a shrimp aquaculture. A municipal waste water treatment is conceived for the irrigation of shrubby forests and landscapes. Mixotrophic cultures were explored to achieve a sustained ecological balance. Food, poultry and animal waste management, as well as a cooker factory, were included in the overall design. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) study shows a low risk due to anticipated net zero emissions, a 75% green city, and optimal waste recycling. This research assists in combining research efforts to address the challenging processes in nexus research and build resilient and sustainable water, energy, and food systems.
Abdelzaher, M. A., Farahat, E. M., Abdel-Ghafar, H. M., Balboul, B. A. A., & Awad, M. M. (2023). Environmental Policy to Develop a Conceptual Design for the Water–Energy–Food Nexus: A Case Study in Wadi-Dara on the Red Sea Coast, Egypt. Water, 15(4), 780. MDPI AG. Doi: 10.3390/w15040780
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