By Matt Howard on Unsplash.
The current analysis attempts to quantify the interlinkages between the water, energy and food sectors of California covering the period 2002–2015. The results reveal that 25% (60,696 GWh) of the annual energy consumption is attributed to agriculture, while 75% (174,709 GWh) is used for water supply purposes. The agricultural sector consumes 77% (32,629 m3) of the irrigation water, and the energy sector is vulnerable to water availability fluctuations, because many hydroelectric facilities are connected to its grid. Considering the water scarcity and the uneven geographical distribution of water in the state, its central role in California’s water–energy–food (WEF) Nexus becomes apparent.