The results show that the system dynamics approach is competent in modeling the WPE nexus of the Hehuang Region. The coevolution process is divided into four cyclic stages (i.e., exploitation, deterioration, depression and recovery stages) and terminates with a stationary cycling after thousands of years. The dynamics of state variables are explicitly interpreted to show how different driving variables affect the variations of system states. The observations obtained by modeling the nexus are insightful, improving the understanding of interactions across coupled systems.
- The WPE nexus is modeled by using the system dynamics approach.
- The coevolution process of WPE nexus is identified as four stages.
- The dynamics of WPE nexus are interpreted for better understanding.