India // Protecting food, energy, and livelihoods in Punjab through water-efficient agriculture
By Mary O'Neill. The state of Punjab spearheaded the Green Revolution that has transformed Indian agriculture. Encouraged by price guarantees, expanded irrigation, and the introduction of high-yielding crop varieties, Punjabi farmers have shifted toward intensive production of grains. Although it occupies just 1.5% of India’s land mass, Punjab now grows more than half the country’s grain, including nearly 20% of its wheat and 12% of its rice. But despite boosting incomes and food security in Punjab, there is a worrisome underside to this transformation.