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Research Article // Energy analysis in Water-Energy-Food-Carbon Nexus

By Marzieh Hasanzadeh Saray and Ali Torabi Haghighi. This study analysed the Water-Energy-Food-Carbon Nexus in northwest Iran, identifying optimal land-use allocation for crops using energy evaluation indices and multi-objective optimization. The framework provides a practical methodology for sustainable agriculture resource allocation.

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This study evaluated the comprehensive Water-Energy-Food-Carbon Nexus (WEFC) by focusing on energy assessment in northwest Iran. The energy evaluation indices for different products were calculated by estimating the total input and output energies. Multi-objective optimization based on five individual objectives and WEFC Nexus policies was used to identify the optimal land-use allocation of wheat, barley, rapeseed, and sugar beet, silage corn, and potato while minimizing water and energy consumption and CO2 emissions, and maximizing food production and profit. The results indicate that the suggested framework provides a practical methodology for determining the optimal land-use allocation considering quantitative WEFC Nexus. To increase economic efficiency and reduce energy consumption, agricultural practices and policy recommendations should be adopted, including promoting renewable energy sources, implementing energy-saving technologies, improving fertilizer management, improving crop rotation practices, conservation tillage, and improving water management and adoption of sustainable farming practices. The results allow policymakers to optimize multiple resources and recommend the best resource allocation under recommendation policy, technology, and constraints to achieve sustainable development in agriculture.


July 2023


Energy Nexus


Saray, M. H., & Haghighi, A. T. (2023). Energy analysis in Water-Energy-Food-Carbon Nexus. Energy Nexus, 100223.


Energy analysis in Water-Energy-Food-Carbon Nexus

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