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Food-Migration Nexus // At the Root of Exodus: Food Security, Conflict and International Migration

This study by the World Food Programme aims at determining the role that food security and other factors play in compelling cross-border migration. Drawn from quantitative and qualitative research, the study gives voice to people who have left their countries of origin.

Cover at the root of exodus food security conflict and international migration world food programme

The study finds that countries with the highest level of food insecurity and conflict have the most significant outward migration of refugees. The study also determined that once a migrant’s journey has begun, food and economic security are critical factors in deciding to continue a journey or settle in a particular location.

The report puts forth recommendations for policymakers and humanitarian organizations involved in the preparation and response to international migration with a focus on forced displacement. Given the unprecedented surge of forced displacement in recent years, the findings underscore the need to prevent conflict and invest in food security at or near people’s place of origin. Doing so may prevent further displacement, reducing forced onward migration flows, result in more cost-effective humanitarian interventions and yield greater socioeconomic benefits over the long term.

Table of Content

  • Section 1: Introduction and Methodology
  • Section 2: Global, Regional Trends and Dynamics of International Migration and Conflict
    • Migration trends
    • Armed conflict
  • Section 3: Global Drivers of International Migration
    • Determinants of International Migration
    • Determinants of Outflow of Refugees
    • Determinants of Armed Conflict
  • Section 4: The Voices of Migrants – Drivers, Impacts and Dynamics
    • Syrian Refugees in Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey
    • Afghans and Syrians in Greece
    • Migrants in Italy
    • Conclusion - Main Drivers of Migration and Role of Food Security from the Migrants’ Perspectives
  • Section 5: Conclusions and Recommendations


WFP website: English, French, Spanish, Arabic



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